Finance is a broad term that describes activities associated with banking, leverage or debt, credit, capital markets, money, and investments. Basically, finance represents money management and the process of acquiring needed funds. Finance also encompasses the oversight, creation, and study of money, banking, credit, investments, assets, and liabilities that make up financial systems. Financial activities are the initiatives and transactions that businesses, governments, and individuals undertake as they seek to further their economic goals. They are activities that involve the inflow or outflow of money.
Since individuals, businesses, and government entities all need funding to operate, the finance field includes three main subcategories, personal finance, Personal finance includes the purchasing of financial products such as credit cards, insurance, mortgages, and various types of investments. corporate finance, Corporate finance refers to the financial activities related to running a corporation, usually with a division or department set up to oversee those financial activities.
Public (government) finance, Public finance includes tax, spending, budgeting, and debt issuance policies that affect how a government pays for the services it provides to the public. There is a wide range of topics that people in the financial industry are concerned such as Interest rates and spreads, yield (coupon payments, dividends), Financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, cash flow statement), Cash flow (free cash flow, other types of cash flow), Profit (net income), Cost of capital (WACC), Rates of return (IRR, ROI, ROA),Dividends and return of capital, Shareholders, Creating value, Behavioral finance.